WHAT ARE CONNECTIVES?
They are words or phrases that link other linguistic units / clauses.
CONNECTIVES TO TALK ABOUT A PAST ACTION:
MEANING = AT A LATER TIME THAN
FORM: AFTER + GERUND
EXAMPLE: After saying goodbye to my parents, I went back home.
FORM: AFTER + PAST SIMPLE / PAST CONTINUOUS
EXAMPLE: After I went home, I took a shower.
MEANING = AT AN EARLIER TIME THAN
FORM: BEFORE + GERUND
EXAMPLE: Before speaking in public, I always warm up my voice.
FORM: BEFORE + PAST SIMPLE / PAST CONTINUOUS
EXAMPLE: Before I was taking a bath, the phone rang.
MEANING = AT THE SAME TIME AS
FORM: WHILE + GERUND
EXAMPLE: While studying, I tend to chew on my pens.
FORM: WHILE + PAST SIMPLE / PAST CONTINUOUS
EXAMPLE: While I was cooking, my neighbor knocked on the door.
CONNECTIVES TO TALK ABOUT A FUTURE ACTION:
TIME CLAUSES with reference to the future can also be introduced by other expressions such as:
once, immediately, the moment, the minute, the day, by the time …
Tony will call the restaurant the moment he gets home.
I‘ll contact you once I receive an estimate.
You will be notified the minute your order arrives.
It will be dark by the time we arrive home.
ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH:
USED TO CONNECT TWO CLAUSES WHEN WE WANT TO SHOW CONTRAST BETWEEN THE TWO:
Although, even though and though are almost identical, but even though is the right choice when we want to make a stronger contrast between the expectation and the actual result.
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