ADVANCED ENGLISH GRAMMAR:
Did you know that even native English speakers struggle with using connectives and when to use which one? This blog post will help you understand! Remember to sign up for your free first lesson to discuss any questions you might have with your favorite English Fluentella teacher!
WHAT ARE CONNECTIVES?
They are words or phrases that link other linguistic units / clauses.
CONNECTIVES TO TALK ABOUT A PAST ACTION:
MEANING = AT A LATER TIME THAN
FORM: AFTER + GERUND
EXAMPLE: After saying goodbye to my parents, I went back home.
FORM: AFTER + PAST SIMPLE / PAST CONTINUOUS
EXAMPLE: After I went home, I took a shower.
MEANING = AT AN EARLIER TIME THAN
FORM: BEFORE + GERUND
EXAMPLE: Before speaking in public, I always warm up my voice.
FORM: BEFORE + PAST SIMPLE / PAST CONTINUOUS
EXAMPLE: Before I was taking a bath, the phone rang.
MEANING = AT THE SAME TIME AS
FORM: WHILE + GERUND
EXAMPLE: While studying, I tend to chew on my pens.
FORM: WHILE + PAST SIMPLE / PAST CONTINUOUS
EXAMPLE: While I was cooking, my neighbor knocked on the door.
CONNECTIVES TO TALK ABOUT A FUTURE ACTION:
TIME CLAUSES with reference to the future can also be introduced by other expressions such as:
once, immediately, the moment, the minute, the day, by the time …
Tony will call the restaurant the moment he gets home.
I‘ll contact you once I receive an estimate.
You will be notified the minute your order arrives.
It will be dark by the time we arrive home.
ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH:
USED TO CONNECT TWO CLAUSES WHEN WE WANT TO SHOW CONTRAST BETWEEN THE TWO:
Although, even though and though are almost identical, but even though is the right choice when we want to make a stronger contrast between the expectation and the actual result.
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